Africa Diagnostic report

GAFFI and Africa CDC launched the Diagnostic Survey Report covering 18 different diagnostics for fungal disease at the 2nd International Conference on Public Health in Africa www.CPHIA2022.com on Monday December 12th.

Accurate diagnosis is crucial for optimal care and reducing unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing. Serious fungal disease is often relatively silent and needs to be actively sought to maximise the chance of survival and minimise disability.

Systemic market failure to incorporate into care packages the latest generations of rapid tests for fungal disease is commonplace on the African continent. This detailed survey, with multiple validation steps in the country, finds some countries with almost no tests and others with an almost complete portfolio, although no African country is fully equipped to meet the challenges of fungal diseases, even in the private sector. The survey reports on data from 48 of 55 African Union Member States (99.65% of the population).

Some of the diagnostic tests such as CT and MR imaging, blood culture and histopathology are required for a broad range of conditions, including fungal disease. The financial burden of diagnostics usually falls directly on patients and families, and few countries fully support diagnostics for fungal disease.

GAFFI highlights the many opportunities to integrate diagnostics into different levels of the health system. It also summarises who should be tested and the ideal turnaround time for results. A final section addresses surveillance and research needs across the continent. The report also details each country’s capabilities in diagnostics, with single page summaries (Appendix 4).

Report in English 

Report en Francais

Individual country profiles (Appendix 4)

Agenda and details here: Gaffi Kigali Launch Invitation and registration


Recordings of the talks are available below:


Titles are –

  • Diagnostic survey – Rationale, survey methodology and multiple stakeholder validation and dialogue with each country – David Denning and Emma Orefuwa, (GAFFI)
  • Africa CDC validation workshops – overview and main findings – Nafiisah Chotun (Africa CDC)
  • Brief summary of fungal disease – What is the opportunity here? – Felix Bongomin (Gulu), Rita Oladele (Lagos) and Martha Mushi (Mwanza)
  • Outcomes from the GAFFI Guatemala project for HIV – David Denning
  • African cases studies of development – Rita Oladele

Reference papers

Diagnostic capacity for invasive fungal infections in advanced HIV disease in Africa: a continent-wide survey. Lakoh et. al., Lancet Infectious Diseases 2023.

Diagnostic capacity for cutaneous fungal diseases in the African continent. Badiane et.al.,-Int-J-Dermatology 2023.

Diagnostic options for lung fungal diseases in Africa., Mushi  et.al., ERJ Open Res 2023.

Access to the World Health Organization-recommended essential diagnostics for invasive fungal infections in critical care and cancer patients in Africa: A diagnostic survey.Tufa et.al., J Pub Health Infect 2023.

Diagnostic capacity for fungal keratitis in Africa – Survey in 50 African countries. Makarangara et.al., Ocular Surface 2023